a generation gap is a popular term used to describe big

A generation gap or generational gap is a difference of opinions and outlooks between one generation and another. These differences may relate to lớn beliefs, politics, language, work, demographics and values.[1] The differences between generations can cause misunderstandings, but it is possible for generations to lớn overcome their differences and maintain functional relationships.[2]


While the term "generation gap" might have been crystallized in the 1960s, its essence extends far beyond this label. Throughout history, each generation has carved its identity, distilling the essence of its time into distinctive expressions of culture, art, and innovation. John Poppy's introduction of the term, in Look magazine in 1967, merely affixed a name to lớn a phenomenon that had long been an undercurrent of societal evolution, marking a turning point where the clash of old and new became undeniable. Indeed, Protzko and Schooler report that since 624 BC people have complained about the decline of the present generation of youth compared to lớn earlier generations. They điện thoại tư vấn this the "kids these days effect".[3]

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Also early sociologists such as Karl Mannheim noted differences across generations in how the youth transits into adulthood,[4] and studied the ways in which generations separate themselves from one another, in the trang chủ and in social situations and areas (such as churches, clubs, senior centers, and youth centers).

The sociological theory of a generation gap first came to lớn light in the 1960s, when the younger generation (later known as baby boomers) seemed to lớn go against everything their parents had previously believed in terms of music, values, government and political views as well as cultural tastes. Sociologists now refer to lớn the "generation gap" as "institutional age segregation". Usually, when any of these age groups are engaged in its primary activity, the individual members are physically isolated from people of other generations, with little interaction across age barriers except at the nuclear family level.

Distinguishing generation gaps[edit]

There are several ways to lớn make distinctions between generations. For example, names are given to lớn major groups (Silent Generation, Baby boomers, Generation X, Millennials, Generation Z, and Generation Alpha) and each generation sets its own trends and has its own cultural impact.

Language use[edit]

It can be distinguished by the differences in their language use. The generation gap has created a parallel gap in language that can be difficult to lớn communicate across. This issue is one visible throughout society, creating complications within day-to-day communication at trang chủ, in the workplace, and in schools. As new generations seek to lớn define themselves as something apart from the old, they adopt new lingo and slang, allowing a generation to lớn create a sense of division from the previous one. This is a visible gap between generations we see every day. "Man's most important symbol is his language and through this language, he defines his reality."[5]


Slang is an ever-changing phối of colloquial words and phrases that speakers use to lớn establish or reinforce social identity or cohesiveness within a group or with a trend in society at large.[6] As each successive generation of society struggles to lớn establish its own unique identity among its predecessors it can be determined that generational gaps provide a large influence over the continual change and adaptation of slang. As slang is often regarded as an ephemeral dialect, a constant supply of new words is required to lớn meet the demands of the rapid change in characteristics.[6] And while most slang terms maintain a fairly brief duration of popularity, slang provides a quick and readily available vernacular screen to lớn establish and maintain generational gaps in a societal context.

Technological influences[edit]

Every generation develops new slang, but with the development of technology, understanding gaps have widened between the older and younger generations. "The term 'communication skills,' for example, might mean formal writing and speaking abilities to lớn an older worker. But it might mean e-mail and instant-messenger savvy to lớn a twenty-something."[7] People often have private conversations in secret in a crowded room in today's age due to lớn the advances of mobile phones and text messaging. Among "texters" a size of slang or texting lingo has developed, often keeping those not as tech-savvy out of the loop. "Children increasingly rely on personal technological devices lượt thích cell phones to lớn define themselves and create social circles apart from their families, changing the way they communicate with their parents. Cell phones, instant messaging, e-mail, and the lượt thích have encouraged younger users to lớn create their own inventive, quirky, and very private written language. That has given them the opportunity to lớn essentially hide in plain sight. They are more connected kêu ca ever, but also far more independent. Text messaging, in particular, has perhaps become this generation's version of Pig Latin."[8]

Technological innovations that have occurred between generations have made some skills obsolete: for example, shorthand (e.g. Gregg shorthand), a system of stenography often used in the 20th century to lớn take notes and write faster using abbreviated symbols, rather kêu ca having to lớn write each word. However, with new technology and the keyboard, newer generations no longer favour these older communication skills. Over trăng tròn years ago, shorthand was taught in many high schools, but now students have rarely seen or even heard of it.[9]

The transitions from each level of lifespan development have remained the same throughout history. They have all shared the same basic milestones in their travel from childhood, through midlife and into retirement. However, while the pathways remain the same—i.e. attending school, marriage, raising families, retiring—the actual journey varies not only with each individual but with each new generation.[10]

In 2011, the National Sleep Foundation conducted a poll that focused on sleep and the use of technology; 95% of those polled admitted to lớn using some size of technology within the last hour before going to lớn bed at night. The study compared the difference in sleep patterns in those who watched TV or listened to lớn music before bedtime, compared to lớn those who used cell phones, đoạn Clip games and the Internet.[11] The study looked at Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, Generation Yers, and Generation Zers. The research, as expected, showed generational gaps between the different forms of technology used. The largest gap was shown between texting and talking on the phone; 56% of Gen Zers and 42% of Gen Yers admitted to lớn sending, receiving, and reading text messages every night within one hour before bedtime, compared to lớn only 15% of Gen Xers, and 5% of Baby Boomers. Baby Boomers were more likely to lớn watch TV within the last hour before bedtime, 67%, compared to lớn Millennials, who came in at 49%. When asked about computer/internet use within the last hour before bedtime, 70% of those polled admitted to lớn using a computer "a few times a week", and of those, 55% of the Gen Zers said they "surf the web" every night before bed.[11]

Language brokering[edit]

Another aspect of language use which works to lớn define a generation gap occurs within families in which different generations speak different primary languages. To help communicate within a family, "language brokerage" may be used: that is, the "interpretation and translation performed in everyday situations by bilinguals who have had no special training".[12] In some immigrant families, the first generation speaks mainly their native tongue; the second generation speaks mainly the host language (i.e. that of the country in which they now live) while still retaining fluency in their parent's dominant language; and the third generation mainly uses the host language, and retain little or no conversational skills in their grandparents' native tongue. In such families, the second generation family members serve as interpreters not only to lớn outside persons, but within the household, further propelling[clarification needed] generational differences and divisions by means of linguistic communication.[13]

In some immigrant families and communities, language brokering is also used to lớn integrate children into family endeavors and into civil society. Child integration has become very important to lớn size linkages between new immigrant communities and the predominant culture and new forms of bureaucratic systems.[14] It also helps child development by learning, and pitching in.

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Workplace attitudes[edit]

USA Today reported that younger generations are "entering the workplace in the face of demographic change and an increasingly multi-generational workplace".[15] Multiple engagement studies show that the interests shared across the generation gap by members of this increasingly multi-generational workplace can differ substantially.[16]

A popular belief held by older generations is that the characteristics of Millennials can potentially complicate professional interactions. Some consider Millennials to lớn be narcissistic and self-centered. When millennials first enter a new organization, they are often greeted by wary coworkers. Studies have found that millennials are usually exceptionally confident in their abilities and seek key roles in significant projects early on in their careers.[17]

Most of these inflated expectations are direct results of the generation's upbringing. During the Great Recession, millennials watched first-hand as their parents worked long hours, only to lớn fall victim to lớn downsizing and layoffs. Many families could not withstand these challenges, leading to lớn high divorce rates and broken families. In fact, 59% of Millennials say the Great Recession negatively impacted their career plans, while only 35% of mature workers feel the same way.[18] For these reasons, millennials are more likely to lớn negotiate the terms of their work.[19] Though some boomers view this as lazy behavior, others have actually been able to lớn learn from millennials, reflecting on whether the sacrifices that they had made in their lives provided them with the happiness that they had hoped for.

Growing up, millennials looked to lớn parents, teachers, and coaches as a source of praise and tư vấn. They were part of an educational system with inflated grades and standardized tests, in which they were skilled at performing well. Millennials developed a strong need for frequent, positive feedback from supervisors. Today, managers find themselves assessing their subordinates’ productivity quite frequently, despite the fact that they often find it burdensome. Additionally, millennials’ salaries and employee benefits give this generation an idea of how well they are performing. Millennials crave success, and good-paying jobs have been proven to lớn make them feel more successful.[19]

Because group projects and presentations were commonplace during the schooling of millennials, this generation enjoys collaborating and even developing close friendships with colleagues. While working as part of a team enhances innovation, enhances productivity, and lowers personnel costs. Supervisors find that millennials avoid risk and independent responsibility by relying on team members when making decisions, which prevents them from showcasing their own abilities.[17]

Perhaps the most commonly cited difference between older and younger generations is technological proficiency. Studies have shown that their reliance on technology has made millennials less comfortable with face-to-face interaction and deciphering verbal cues. However, technological proficiency also has benefits; millennials are far more effective in multitasking, responding to lớn visual stimulation, and filtering information kêu ca older generations.[20]

However, according to lớn the engagement studies, mature workers and the new generations of workers share similar thoughts on a number of topics across the generation gap. Their opinions overlap on flexible working hours/arrangements, promotions/bonuses, the importance of computer proficiency, and leadership. Additionally, the majority of Millennials and mature workers enjoy going to lớn work every day and feel inspired to lớn tự their best.[18]

Generational consciousness[edit]

Generational consciousness is another way of distinguishing among generations that were worked on by social scientist Karl Mannheim. Generational consciousness is when a group of people become mindful of their place in a distinct group identifiable by their shared interests and values. Social, economic, or political changes can bring awareness to lớn these shared interests and values for similarly-aged people who experience these events together and thereby size a generational consciousness. These types of experiences can impact individuals' development at a young age and enable them to lớn begin making their own interpretations of the world based on personal encounters that phối them apart from other generations.[21]

Intergenerational living[edit]

"Both social isolation and loneliness in older men and women are associated with increased mortality, according to lớn a 2012 Report by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America".[22] Intergenerational living is one method being used worldwide as a means of combating such feelings. A nursing trang chủ in Deventer, The Netherlands, developed a program wherein students from a local university are provided small, rent-free apartments within the nursing trang chủ facility. In exchange, the students volunteer a minimum of 30 hours per month to lớn spend time with the seniors. The students will watch sports with the seniors, celebrate birthdays, and simply keep them company during illnesses and times of distress.[22] Programs similar to lớn the Netherlands’ program were developed as far back as the mid-1990s in Barcelona, Spain. In Spain's program, students were placed in seniors’ homes, with a similar goal of không tính tiền or cheap housing in exchange for companionship for the elderly. That program quickly spread to lớn 27 other cities throughout Spain, and similar programs can be found in Lyon, France, and Cleveland, Ohio.[23]

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To help sociologists understand the transition into adulthood of children of different generations, they compare the current generation to lớn both older and earlier generations at the same time. Not only does each generation mature mentally and physically in their own ways, but they also create new aspects[clarification needed] of attending school, forming new households, starting families and even creating new demographics. The difference in demographics regarding values, attitudes, and behaviors between the two generations are used to lớn create a profile for the emerging generation of young adults.[10]

After the economic boom after the Second World War, America's population rose between the years 1940–1959, and the new American generation was called the Baby Boomers. Today, as of 2017, many of these Baby Boomers have celebrated their 60th birthdays, and so sánh in the next few years, America's senior citizen population will also increase. The generation gap, however, between the Baby Boomers and earlier generations is growing due to lớn the Boomers population post-war.[clarification needed]

There is a large demographic difference between the Baby Boomer generation and earlier generations, which are less racially and ethnically diverse kêu ca the Baby Boomers. This also results in a growing cultural gap: baby boomers have generally higher education, with a higher percentage of women in the labor force and more often occupying professional and managerial positions.[24] These differences create issues of community preferences[clarification needed] as well as spending.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "the definition of generation gap". www.Dictionary.com. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  2. ^ Cambridge, University Press & Assessment (2023). "Cambridge Dictionary".
  3. ^ Protzko, John; Schooler, Jonathan W. (2019-10-16). "Kids these days: Why the youth of today seem lacking". Science Advances. 5 (10): eaav5916. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav5916. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 6795513. PMID 31663012.
  4. ^ Furlong, A 2013
  5. ^ Ramaa Prasad (1 December 1992). Generation Gap, a Sociological Study of Inter-generational Conflicts. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-351-3. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  6. ^ a b Slang and Sociability, Eble, Connie, Chapel Hill Press: the University of North Carolina, 1996
  7. ^ Kersten, Denise (15 November 2002). "Today's Generations Face New Communication Gaps". USAToday.com. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  8. ^ Holson, Laura M. (9 March 2008). "Text Generation Gap: U R 2 Old (JK)". The Thành Phố New York Times. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  9. ^ Owen, Andrew. "Gregg Shorthand". Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  10. ^ a b Settersten, Richard A., Furstenberg, Frank F., and Rumbaut, Rubén G., eds. On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press, 2005. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 30 March năm ngoái.
  11. ^ a b Rosenberg, Russell, et al. National Sleep Foundation 2011 "Sleep in America" Poll. (White Paper.) 2011.[1]
  12. ^ Tse, Lucy (1996). "Language brokering in linguistic minority communities: The case of Chinese- and Vietnamese-American students". The Bilingual Research Journal. 20 (3–4): 485–498. doi:10.1080/15235882.1996.10668640.
  13. ^ Del Torto, L.M. (2008). "Once a broker, always a broker: Non-professional interpreting as identity accomplishment in multigenerational Italian-English bilingual family interaction". Multilingua. 27 (1/2): 77–97. doi:10.1515/multi.2008.005. S2CID 201097043.
  14. ^ Bauer, Elaine (2010) "Language brokering: Practicing active citizenship", mediation 10, http://mediazioni.sitlec.unibo.it Archived 2014-06-06 at the Wayback Machine, ISSN 1974-4382
  15. ^ Armour, Stephanie (6 November 2005). "Generation Y: They've arrived at work with a new attitude". USA Today. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  16. ^ "Winning the generation game". The Economist. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  17. ^ a b Myers, Sadaghiani (2010). "Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials' Organizational Relationships and Performance". Journal of Business and Psychology. 25 (2): 225–238. doi:10.1007/s10869-010-9172-7. PMC 2868990. PMID 20502509.
  18. ^ a b "Millennial and mature workers attitudes align". Randstad USA. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  19. ^ a b Ng. "New Generation, Great Expectations: A Field Study of the Millennial Generation". Journal of Business and Psychology.
  20. ^ Hershatter. "Millennials and the World of Work: An Organization and Management Perspective". Journal of Business and Psychology.
  21. ^ Furlong, Andy (2013). Youth Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-415-56479-3.
  22. ^ a b "Dutch nursing trang chủ offers rent-free housing to lớn students". PBS NewsHour. 5 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  23. ^ International Association of Homes and Services for the Ageing (IAHSA) (2013). "Intergenerational Living". [2]. Web. 12 April năm ngoái.
  24. ^ Frey, William H. Baby Boomers and the New Demographics of America's Seniors. San Francisco: American Society on Aging, 2010. PDF. 1 April 2015

Further reading[edit]

  • Bennis, W. and Thomas, R. (2002) Geeks and Geezers: how era, values and defining moments shape leaders, Harvard Business School Publishing
  • Employee Evolution: the Voice of Millennials at Work
  • Ruggeri, Amanda. "People have always whinged about young adults. Here's proof". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  • Sternheimer, Karen (2006). Kids These Days: Facts and Fictions about Today's Youth. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-4668-4.
  • Resnick, Brian (2019-11-12). "Why old people will always complain about young people". Vox. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  • Friedman, Harvey A. (2021-10-26). ""Kids these days": Why youth-directed ageism is an issue for everyone | Institute for Public Health | Washington University in St. Louis". Institute for Public Health - Washington University in St. Louis. Archived from the original on 2021-12-10. Retrieved 2022-09-06.